Fiona is the editor of Plantpuree, a website that celebrates vegan living. With over 20 years in diet & fitness, fashion, and beauty, she brings a wealth of knowledge and a unique perspective to her work and writing on veganism.
Estimated reading time: 25 minutes
Are you looking for a cruelty-free alternative to real leather, without compromising on quality and affordability? Are you interested in learning more about vegan leather and the benefits it offers? If so, then you’re in the right place.
Thanks to advances in technology, vegan leather has come a long way. Not only has it moved on from the plastic look of the past, it looks and feels like real leather and its broad versatility makes for a premium range of products. You can easily buy shoes, bags, upholstery and clothing made from vegan leather without compromising on style or quality.
But what exactly do we mean when we talk about vegan leather? What is vegan leather made of and are some types better than others? Is it better than animal leather? Is it any good? Is it worth buying?
To help you answer these questions, we’ve put together a beginner’s guide to vegan leather. We’ll look at the different types of vegan leather, how they are used, the pros and cons compared to animal-derived materials, how they perform and their environmental impact.
Whether you’re just entering into the world of animal-friendly fashion or you’ve been a long-time supporter, there is something for everyone in this article.
Vegan Leather Pros:
✔ Animal free and animal-friendly
✔ Increasing use of biodegradable, sustainable plant-based materials
✔ Easy to clean and maintain
✔ Wide range of colors and textures available
✔ More affordable than animal leather
Vegan Leather Cons:
❌ Some types contain fossil fuels and plastics
❌ Does not age as well as animal leather
❌ Not as durable as animal leather
❌ Not as breathable as animal leather
Table of Contents
What is Vegan Leather?
Vegan leather, also known as faux leather, artificial leather, plant-based leather, fake leather, PU, PVC pleather and synthetic leather is an umbrella term for a variety of materials blended together to resemble genuine animal hide but with no animal products or derivatives.
They are broadly divided into the following types:
- Fossil-based plastic leathers
- Plastic-coated plant-based leathers
- Plastic free plant based leathers
- Bio-based leather grown in laboratories
While faux leather has been around for decades. The term “vegan leather” is relatively new and has only been in widespread use for around the last ten years.
The re-branding of the term faux leather to the more eco-friendly feeling term “vegan leather” reflects the response of brands to the shift in consumer attitudes to ethical and environmental concerns.
But in fairness, it’s now so much more than just a re-branding exercise. Advances in technology have enabled a range of new bio-degradeable plant-based leathers to be created which offer improved performance, look better and are more sustainable than their older, cheaper looking, plastic-based faux leather sisters.
What is Vegan Leather Used For?
Everything. Well, ok not everything but anything that requires leather or fabric. Today, vegan leather is a sought-after material used in a wide range of applications.
Looking to make a statement whilst staying in touch with your environmental values? Vegan leather is here for you. It’s no surprise that fashion fanatics are embracing it – luxury brands such as Nanushka, Stella McCartney and Vaute are producing exquisite vegan leather goods like jackets, wallets and handbags.
As a result of its wide range of colors and textures, brands like West Elm, CB2, Tesla, BMW, and Mercedes-Benz have all taken advantage of this adaptable material for furniture pieces as well as car upholstery.
And for you outdoorsy folk seeking a more sustainable option, Merrell, The North Face and Adidas are now introducing vegan leather into their collections for its robust performance against the elements. Enjoy maximum water-resistance while making an ethical lifestyle choice with these top brands!
Other applications include:
- Musical instruments such as drumheads and guitar straps.
- Sporting goods such as weightlifting belts and boxing gloves
- Pet products such as dog collars and leashes
So, regardless of whether you are passionate about fashion, have your eye on new furniture, or enjoy venturing out on bold endeavors – vegan leather has the potential to be incorporated into your lifestyle.
Benefits of Vegan Leather
If you are an ethical vegan and/or are against contributing to the exploitation and harm of animals then choosing vegan leather is non-negotiable. For you, it becomes about understanding what is a “good” vegan leather for your needs.
Even if you aren’t vegan, vegan leather is a great alternative to animal leather for a variety of other reasons.
For starters, vegan leather is much more affordable than animal leather which makes it an attractive choice for those who want to save money when buying furniture or clothing. It has come a long way in recent years and new technologies have allowed for materials that closely approximate the look and feel of real leather making it a highly sought after purse friendly alternative.
Caring for vegan leather is also easier since it doesn’t require the same level of attention that animal leather does as most products can be wiped down with a damp cloth and some mild soap.
Additionally, vegan leather is available in a wide variety of colors and textures, so it’s easier to match with any outfit or decor.
Finally, in addition to being cruelty-free and cheaper, faux leather is also more resistant to water and is not as prone to staining or fading as genuine leather when cared for properly.
However, it’s not all sunshine and roses. Like any material, vegan leather has its drawbacks. While it is generally more sustainable than animal-based leather, some synthetic materials have been linked to environmental pollution and health concerns. Furthermore, vegan leather will not last if it’s not cared for or made from low-quality materials.
We’ll get into the concerns around vegan leather further on in the article. For now, let’s take a look at the different types of vegan leather available and what they are made from.
What is Vegan Leather Made From?
The world of vegan leather is growing quickly, with more materials, plant-based ingredients and suppliers being added to the mix every day.
As mentioned earlier, depending on their origins, vegan leather substitutes can be divided into four broad categories, all of which have their own benefits, and drawbacks in terms of performance and environmental impact:
1. Fossil Based Plastic Leathers such as PVC and PU
2. Plastic Coated Plant Based Leathers such as Desserto, Pinatex, Vegea
3. Non-Plastic Coated Plant Based Leathers such as Mirum and Cork
3. Laboratory Grown Bio-leather such as Kombucha and Muskin (mushroom leather)
From synthetic substances to vegetable-based textiles and plastic – vegan leather is created with a variety of materials. Depending on the type you choose, these vegan leathers can be soft and luxurious or long-lasting and durable; some are highly water resistant while others aren’t so much.
The two most popular materials used in vegan leathers are PVC and PU, both of which are derived from fossil-based plastics. In addition, recycled plastic vegan leathers are becoming more common as brands look for ways to reduce their environmental footprints.
Though not as common, well known plant-based materials like cork, cactus and pineapple leaves are also used to create vegan leathers.
Often, these plant-based materials have better sustainability credentials than PVC and PU but as the table below indicates none of the plastic coated plant based leathers are recyclable or biodegradable.
The answer lies with laboratory-grown bio-leathers such as kombucha, mushroom leather and new kid on the block plastic free MIRUM leather.
Table of Vegan Leathers – Composition
The table below illustrates the origin of the most well-known vegan leathers, along with each material’s composition. You’ll also discover if they are recyclable or bio-degradable and whether plastic is included in their construction.
|Bio-based/Laboratory Grown||Muskin||A single layer of finely fibrous, porous material that is naturally grown and has no coating or textile backing.||No||Yes||Yes|
|Bio-based/Laboratory Grown||Kombucha||Thin, single layer of material made by dehydrating a bacterial-yeast culture involving fermentation and microbial activity. No coating or backing.||No||Yes||Yes|
|Plastic Coated Textile||PU/PVC/|
|A coated textile made with a top layer of compact PUR/PVC and a bottom layer of PUR/PVC filled with modified cellulose particles and polyester,||Yes||No||No|
|Plastic Coated Plant-based Textile||Desserto||Textiles coated with thin, compact layers of polyurethane (PUR) and a polyurethane foam layer filled with organic particles derived from Cactus||Yes||No||No|
|Plastic Coated Plant-based Textile||Appleskin||Textiles coated with thin, compact layers of polyurethane (PUR) and a polyurethane foam layer filled with organic particles derived from Apples||Yes||No||No|
|Plastic Coated Plant-based Textile||Vegea||Textiles coated with thin, compact layers of polyurethane (PUR) and a polyurethane foam layer filled with organic particles derived from Grapes||Yes||No||No|
|Plastic Coated Plant-based Textile||Pinatex||A thin polymeric layer coats a non-woven material composed of cellulose-based natural fibers derived from Pineapple leaves.||Yes||No||No|
|Plastic Free Plant-based Textile||Mirum||Made from a combination of new and recycled plant fibers. It is produced by compressing the materials together .||No||Yes||Yes|
|Plastic Free Plant-based Textile||Cork||Textile covered with a flattened sheet of dried cork||No||Yes||Yes|
Plastic and Fossil Derived Vegan Leathers
We’ve established that vegan leathers are created using a variety of materials, but what about the ones containing plastic?
As the most commonly available and affordable vegan leathers, plastic and fossil-based materials offer a durable, easy to maintain alternative to traditional animal leathers.
However, as with all things there are compromises when it comes to environmental sustainability.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl)
PVC, or Polyvinyl Chloride is a cost-effective and resilient form of plastic made from petroleum. It’s an incredibly versatile material that has been used in many applications including construction, medical equipment, clothing such as rainwear and protective gear and vegan Doc Martens shoes-just to name a few!
In fact, in just the EU and UK, an astonishing 153,000 tonnes of PVC coated materials are used every year. (1)
However, many consumers are unaware of the damaging environmental consequences that come with producing and disposing of PVC products. In fact, Greenpeace has deemed it “the single most environmentally damaging type of plastic.” (2)
PVC products, once produced, can persist in the environment for hundreds of years and release harmful chemicals into the soil and water as they degrade: so much so that even Arctic polar bears have been found to contain dioxins in their bloodstream. (3)
This vegan leather is often seen in outdoor furniture and car interiors due to its superior resistance against wearing, abrasions, oils, chemicals, and dirt. Additionally it also has remarkable water-resistance as well as an ability to last through harsh weather conditions.
So while PVC leather is widely used due to its low cost, durability, and versatility, it is important to consider the environmental impacts of its production and disposal. (4, 5)
Similarly to PVC leather, PU leather starts with a base material such as cotton, polyester, or paper, which is then coated with a polymer layer that gives it the look and feel of leather unlike the more plasticized look you get from PVC.
Vegan leather made of this material is pricier than its PVC counterpart, and it is often featured in shoes, purses, or other fashion accessories. Though it can withstand a sudden shower, this fabric is not as tough and resilient as PVC faux leather.
Both PU and PVC leather have a negative impact on the environment, but PVC has a more significant environmental footprint due to its production process and disposal.
While PU leather is not a sustainable material, it is less harmful than PVC leather, making it a slightly better alternative for those looking for a synthetic leather option with a lower environmental impact.
Although PVC and PU are not created from animal hides, they still cause immense harm to wildlife in ecosystems that have been ruined by fossil fuel extraction, pleather manufacturing and plastic trash.
From sea otters affected by oil leakage to whales containing microplastics inside their stomachs – the upstream and downstream ramifications of pu and pvc cannot be considered ‘cruelty-free’ nor sustainable. (6,7)
Recycled Plastic Vegan Leather
With the world’s oceans filled with plastic pollution, it makes sense that we would want to find a way to recycle this material rather than continue to add to the problem. And that’s exactly what some brands are doing with recycled plastic vegan leather.
This type of leather is usually made from recycled PET (polyethylene terephthalate), which is the type of plastic most often used to make water bottles. It is durable, flexible, and does not require any extra land to produce.
Brands such as Eileen Fisher, Everlane and Tentree have used recycled plastic vegan leather to make their products. Not only does this reduce their environmental impact, but it also reduces the cost of production since there is no need for land or additional resources.
However, the clear downside of recycled plastic leather is that it does not biodegrade, so it will eventually end up in landfill at the end of its life.
That’s why vegan leather alternatives made from plant-based materials are becoming increasingly popular. But are they really a better option? Let’s take a look at some of the more common plant-based leathers on the market.
Plant-based Leathers – Plastic Coated
In recent years, a flurry of businesses have attracted the attention of conscientious consumers in pursuit of products created from vegan leather materials such as apple waste, cactus and grapes. Brands such as Zara and H&M compete fiercely to launch exclusive collections using these newer materials.
The problem? Despite the latest advancements of plant-based materials, most still contain fossil fuel-derived synthetic coatings and additives.
In some cases, PU plastic is mixed with fruit or plant material to create a blended fabric that can neither be recycled nor composted. Though these so-called new generation of alternative fabrics contain less plastic than PVC or PU, their ultimate destiny remains landfill disposal or incineration—two highly undesirable results!
However, on the positive side, plant-based leathers do not use animal hides, and the feedstock source is renewable, which means it can be farmed or grown as a crop to replace what is used.
Desserto, a Mexican brand leading the way in cactus leather development, has revolutionized sustainable materials with their prickly pear cactus-based alternative to traditional leather.
This eco-friendly material offers multiple advantages for our environment like reducing waste and energy consumption, increasing biodiversity and soil quality – not to mention its capability of absorbing carbon dioxide.
Crafting cactus leather is a non-toxic process that eliminates the need for any dangerous chemicals, and as an added bonus, it doesn’t require irrigation or pesticides. Plus, you don’t have to worry about sacrificing sustainably – this plant can be harvested multiple times before needing to regenerate. Cacti are strength in numbers; even one cactus has many benefits over time.
Furthermore, Desserto claim that their 14-acre cactus plantation absorbs 8,100 tons of carbon dioxide per year and generates 15 tons annually.
In a recent study, Desserto’s cactus leather showed great results in terms of tensile and tear strength compared to other coated textiles, making it an excellent choice for shoes, gloves, and apparel. (8)
Brands such as H&M, Givenchy, Adidas and BMW have used this innovative material in their collections, showcasing the potential for more sustainable fashion in the future.
Believe it or not, apple skin pulp can replicate leather!
After making apple juice, the pulp is usually thrown away. To make the leather, the apple waste, from apples cultivated in Italy, is dried and ground into powder.
This powder turns into a flexible, leathery sheet that is then combined with Polyurethane to create the vegan leather, which is PETA-approved. The material contains a minimum of 50% apple fibre and is created in Bolzano, Italy.
The result? Apple Skin is proving to be a major game changer in the fashion and furnishing industry. Made of 50% recycled apple fibre and 50% polyurethane, it transforms into an ultra-soft texture that makes for perfect clothing material.
Simultaneously, its sturdier version also works wonders with shoes, luggage articles as well as upholstery pieces.
Womsh, an Italian footwear manufacturer, has taken the leap to incorporate AppleSkin into their range of vegan trainers. Other renowned brands such as Sylven New York and Luxtra London have recognized its potential too – resulting in them integrating this revolutionary material into their own products.
Pineapple Leaves (Piñatex)
Piñatex is a revolutionary material made from pineapple leaves, and it’s quickly becoming one of the most popular sustainable fabrics in the fashion industry. The leaves are collected after the fruits have been harvested for food purposes – making them an abundant, natural by-product.
Once pineapple blooms and fruits, the plant becomes useless once harvested; its leaves are considered a waste product.
The fibers are gathered from the leaves, and what remains is recycled as compost. The fiber is felted into a material which has a vast array of uses – anything from shoes and bags to clothes or upholstery.
But it’s not just all about looks – this innovative material also helps to support farmers in the Philippines as they are able to collect an additional income from selling their pineapple leaves.
In addition, celebrated brands like Hugo Boss and Zara have been using Piñatex in some of their collections. With all these positive benefits, it’s no surprise that this sustainable fabric is becoming increasingly popular.
But while far more eco-friendly than PU and PVC leathers in terms of requiring fewer carbon emissions to produce, it is still mixed with polylactic acid and a petroleum-based resin, which makes the end-product non-biodegradable.
Grape Skin Leather
Italian biomaterial startup Vegea has taken wine-making waste like grape skins, seeds, and rasps to craft a natural raw material that mimics leather.
Grape skin leather is one of the latest sustainable fabrics on the market, and it’s quickly gaining traction in the fashion and accessory industries.
The technique begins with extracting bio-oil from the grape seeds and drying out additional elements of the grapes. Afterwards, all materials are polymerized to establish a soft material that incorporates natural fibers for texture-78% eco-friendly organic cotton and 22% PU. (9)
Through their revolutionary environmentally-friendly invention, not only have they sealed partnerships with renowned brands such as H&M for shoes and handbags as well as Bentley’s 100th Anniversary vehicle interior — but it also proved to be a groundbreaking approach for recycling resources which would otherwise end up in landfills.
Plant-based Leathers – Plastic Free
By combining natural resources like cactus, pineapple and grapes with plastic to create vegan leathers such as Desserto Cactus, Pinatex Pineapple and Vegea Grape, the end result is neither recyclable nor compostable.
Enter Cork and Mirum Leather….
Cork leather is making a splash in the fashion and accessory industries, offering a sustainable alternative to traditional leather. It is made from the bark of cork oak trees, which are harvested every 9-10 years without damaging the tree. The bark is then washed, boiled, and dried to remove impurities before being treated with waxes and oils and tanned using environmentally friendly methods. (10)
Cork leather has unique advantages compared to traditional leather, such as its cruelty-free production, water resistance and durability, as well as its unique appearance – making it a great choice for eco-conscious consumers.
Although products made from cork may take longer to decompose than raw cork depending on processing methods and storage conditions when compared to synthetic materials like plastic it still has a much lower environmental impact and is considered more sustainable.
It has been used by Jimmy Choo, Prada and Gucci , as well as smaller and sustainable brands like Corkor.
Introducing MIRUM – a revolutionary plant-based leather created by Natural Fibre Welding (NFW), already causing a stir in the world of fashion and cars. It’s plastic free and an absolute game changer!
MIRUM is made from a blend of virgin and recycled plant fibers, like cork powder and coconut husks, and it’s produced through mechanical compression, not chemical processes like other plant-based leathers. NFW uses patented techniques to create a luxurious look and feel, without relying on plastic coatings. (11)
And the best part? MIRUM is a closed-loop system that eliminates waste. At the end of its life, it can be recycled into new MIRUM or even used as a soil additive. Unlike animal-derived leather and synthetic materials, MIRUM is sustainable, made from abundant plant matter and agricultural waste.
Brands like Luxtra, AllBirds, and BMW are already working with MIRUM, and the environmental benefits are crystal clear.
Producing 1 square meter of MIRUM results in 14 times less carbon emissions compared to chrome-tanned leather, 7.5 times less than synthetic leather, and 4 times less than partly bio-based PU leathers. (12)
So if you’re looking for a vegan leather that’s luxurious and sustainable, MIRUM is worth considering.
Bio-based Leather (Laboratory Grown)
Literally grown in a lab, bio-based leather is made from yeast, bacteria, and fungi. It’s an intriguing process – one that requires fewer resources and produces virtually zero waste.
These innovative materials have a number of advantages – they’re renewable, biodegradable, and breathable. However, they’re not as durable as some of the other options in this post, can be more expensive than other vegan leathers, and they’re not as widely available.
Though these products are not yet widely available and there is still a long way to go in terms of research and development, it is a promising sign that the fashion industry is continuing to explore more sustainable and ethical options.
If you’re looking for a vegan option that rivals the look of real leather, mushroom leather may just be what you need. It’s made from Phellinus ellipsoideus mushrooms and is naturally tanned to provide its “leather-like” appearance. Plus, it does not require any animal resources and leaves behind a much smaller environmental footprint than traditional cowhide.
Bolt Threads is an example of one company pioneering the technology; they recently unveiled a prototype of a leather-like material called Mylo which was grown from mycelium, the vegetative part of fungi. In addition to being biodegradable, this vegan alternative is also breathable and super soft.
To get your hands on some other outstanding mushroom leather products, take a peek at Myco Works or Ecovative – all top players in this field.
How Does Vegan Leather Perform against Leather?
At first glance, you may expect vegan leather to be inferior to genuine animal leather. After all, it’s synthetic and doesn’t have the same natural durability as real hide. But depending on the material used, vegan leather can actually hold up better over time than animal products in certain areas such as water resistance.
For example, vegan leather made from PU and PVC doesn’t absorb water like animal skin – it can simply be wiped clean. This makes these materials a great choice for shoes, bags and outdoor accessories that may experience wet weather or need to be cleaned often.
Vegan leathers are also considerably lighter than their genuine counterparts. For example, a pair of genuine leather shoes will weigh more than a vegan alternative due to the heavier hide and stitching.
On the other hand, some animal leathers may be stronger and tougher than certain vegan fabrics, plus they boast that supple texture that can’t be matched by synthetic fabrics. But this doesn’t mean that animal hide is necessarily better – it depends on the application and what you’re looking for from the fabric in terms of performance.
Differences Between Vegan Leather and Animal Leather
|Criteria||Vegan Leather||Animal Leather|
|Durability||Less Durable||More Durable|
|Aging||Does not develop a patina||Improves as ages|
|Flexibility -Can it stretch||Yes – not as well as leather||Yes|
|Can it be machine washed||Sometimes -check care label||No|
|Can it be repaired||Yes||Yes|
|Can it be altered||Yes||Yes|
|Does it peel||Yes||No|
|Does it biodegrade||Not all types (see table 1)||Only if raw and unprocessed|
|Can it be recycled||Not all types (see table 1)||Yes|
|Carbon Emissions (13)||Lower||Higher|
Identifying Vegan Leather
If you are looking to buy vegan leather products, it’s easy to mistakenly buy products that contain animal ingredients – for example vegan leather shoes that use glues derived from animals.
To ensure you are buying the real deal, look out for certifications such as PETA-Approved Vegan, Intertek and the Vegan Society, which guarantee that the product is vegan.
In order to be certified by PETA, brands must first complete a short online questionnaire. In addition, all of the company’s manufacturers and suppliers are required to submit their own statement of assurance.
The Vegan Society
The Vegan Trademark logo applies to products as opposed to brands. To be certified, a company must submit signed written statements from their manufacturers confirming their compliance with the Vegan Trademark Standards.
To obtain the Intertek Vegan Mark for products they go through a more rigid testing process than PETA or The Vegan Society which involves:
- Declaration by applicant
- Screening of animal fiber
- Screening of synthetic material by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
- Chemical test on animal tracer
Is Vegan Leather Kind to The Environment?
In terms of environmental impact, vegan leather is moving in the right direction but not where it needs to be. You will need to be mindful of the material you are considering.
That said, if you care about the environment, there are many benefits to choosing vegan leather over animal leather.
The way animal leather is produced has harmful environmental consequences in that livestock breeding creates problems such as deforestation, water and land shortages, and harmful gas emissions.
Globally, livestock production has been the most significant contributor to deforestation in the Amazon. From 1988 to 2014, destructive practices such as clear-cutting caused approximately 480 thousand kilometers of Brazilian Amazon forestland to be used for raising cattle. This environmental disaster not only depletes available water and soil nutrient levels but also devastates biodiversity in the region.
Worse still, climatologists believe that ranching – including raising livestock for leather – is fueling climate change. (14,15)
However, as we noted earlier, while vegan leathers such as Mirum and Cork are bio-degradeable not all vegan leather is completely “environmentally friendly.” And while it is true that vegan leather generally has a smaller carbon footprint, there is significant concern on the environmental impact of synthetic leathers made from PVCs, PU and other poly-composite microfibers.
How Ethical is Vegan Leather?
There’s no doubt that vegan leather is a good choice for those looking for an alternative to animal derived materials or by-products.
Choosing vegan leather decreases the need for the cruel practices that are prevalent in the leather industry. Many animals are subjected to extreme crowding, confinement without access to necessities, and physical mutilation with no anesthetics while being raised or slaughtered specifically for their skin. To spare these animals from such a horrific fate is one of the many reasons why vegan leather is so important and necessary. (16)
To give you an idea of the numbers, according to the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, over 1 billion animals were slaughtered for their hides between 2019 and 2020, with China, US, and Brazil each producing over 100 tonnes of animal skins. (17) These hides are from cows, calves, goats, lambs, and even cats and dogs. (18)
However, the ethicality of vegan leather is a debatable subject. On one hand, it eliminates the animal cruelty that comes with traditional leather production. On the other hand, some materials used in vegan leather production have their own environmental impacts.
In addition to considering animal welfare and eco-friendliness, it is also important to take into account the labor conditions of factory workers and other components of the supply chain.
A great example of a brand that puts ethics and sustainability at the heart of their business is Veja. They are committed to using only sustainable materials, ethically sourced from local suppliers, produced in factories with fair labor conditions, and support initiatives to reduce carbon footprint. (19)
What’s the Future of Vegan Leather?
Vegan leather has come a long way in recent years, with more and more brands choosing to switch from animal hide to plant-based alternatives. Moving forward, we can expect to see an even greater variety of vegan materials being developed as the market for animal-free and truly sustainable products continues to expand.
As you consider making the switch to vegan leather, remember that it’s not an automatic guarantee of environmental friendliness. Natural and recycled materials offer a more reliable alternative so that your purchase won’t only be kinder to animals but also kinder to our planet.
Before investing in any product, we suggest researching the brand’s values and sustainable practices in order to make sure you are truly supporting the environment.
We can also play a part in reducing our impact by consuming less and investing in high-quality, long-lasting products that will last for years to come.
The future of vegan leather lies in the hands of conscious consumers who are willing to research and think critically about their purchases. As the demand for more sustainable products continues to increase, brands will be forced to innovate and develop more affordable bio-based materials that are both kinder to animals, people, and the environment.
With these positive steps towards sustainability, we can all look forward to a more ethical and eco-friendly future.
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- Eshel, G., et al. 2014. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(33), pp.11996-12001.
- Camilli, Sascha. Vegan Style p61